Leaving Home


HAVING been called by important business to leave our own country to travel for a season in other lands, and having received an invitation to furnish a series of articles for the INSTRUCTOR, we now attempt the fulfillment of our promise. The articles will be nothing more than homely sketches of the common experiences of a traveler in foreign lands, and scenes beheld from the ordinary stand-point; yet we trust they may impart some useful information.

The first experiences of such a trip are never pleasant. As we bid adieu to, those we love, possibly never to see them again, thoughts of the dangers and disagreeable experiences we must meet in months of wandering from home and friends, among strangers whose language we do not understand, pass rapidly through the mind, as the cars whirl us onward to the place of sailing. How much pleasanter to stay with those whom we know and love!

Reaching Now York City, the point of departure, our party spent some time in looking at objects of interest in this great metropolis of the Western World. It is a great city indeed. In the radius of comparatively a few miles, in the city itself and in those connected with it, over two millions of people live. Only five States in our great country have each as many people as are congregated within this small space. One or two millions more go through this city every year. Hundreds of thousands of seamen visit it, bringing their cargoes from every land and clime. Miles of ships are made fast to its wharves, loading and unloading their cargoes. Ferry boats, heavily loaded with passengers, constantly pass and repass each other upon North and East Rivers.

The elevated railroads are quite a curiosity. They run many miles up and down the island on which the city is built. They are raised up high enough so that other cars and vehicles can pass under them.

They are built very strongly on high iron frames, and have little engines of a peculiar pattern. They carry vast numbers of people everyday. It seems strange to be riding along high enough to look into the people's chambers. By means of these roads, people can at night be carried out ten or fifteen miles to their homes, and can come into the city to do their business in the morning, at an expense of only five or ten cents. So they can live almost out in the country, and yet in the city too. This is much better than to live so crowded as they would other-wise be obliged to do. On the elevated railroads they can in a few minutes go as far as they could in hours of travel on foot or in horse-cars.

But we must go on shipboard. We have started on a foreign trip, and this ship is to be our home for nearly two weeks. We are taken down stairs into a dark-looking room, and through a narrow passage to our own room. This room, called a state room, is some six feet long by eight in width. High up, there is a little circular window securely bolted. It is about ten inches across, with glass about an inch thick. It has on one side what one would call two shelves, one above the other, perhaps six feet long by two wide, with high side boards to each.

These are called berths. A passenger sleeps in each. The side boards keep him from rolling out when the boat rocks. On the opposite side is a sofa berth, a wash-bowl, glass, and various toilet articles are provided, and all well fastened. A bottle of drinking water, with two glasses, are set down in holes cut for them in a frame constructed for the purpose, so the rolling sea cannot shake them out. Our quarters seem very small to a green land's man. But we must remember we are not out in the broad country, but within a small space confined by strong walls. We are to cross the mighty ocean.

Our friends, who have great fears about fresh air, look at their windows and small quarters with some anxiety as to where the air is to come from. But it is well always to make the best of everything, and we are content.

The time arrives to depart. The whistle blows twice. Friends shake hands, and hurry away. The gangway is hauled off. The captain takes his position on the highest point, and calls out in strong; commanding tones to let go the ropes.

The noble ship moves out into the stream. Hats and kerchiefs are waved by friends on wharf and boat, as we slowly fade from each other's sight. Shall we see their faces again? We hope to do so in this world; if not, in a better. We rapidly pass out to sea. The great city disappears from sight. Soon the great ocean appears to view. After riding an hour or two along the Jersey shore on one side and the islands of New York harbor and Long Island on the other, we come in view of Sandy Hook, formed by a deep bay on the Jersey side, and a long point on the ocean side of it running up in the form of an immense fish hook. Up at the point it is a sandy beach. This is our last land. A little boat comes up to our ship's side, the engine stops, a rope is thrown out from our ship, the man in the boat grasps it, and the little boat swings up to the side of the great steam-ship. The pilot, who has guided our ship down the channel, runs down a rope ladder on the ship's side, and drops into the little boat. Then our engine starts again, and we are now out at sea. No more connection with native land till we return again. Will that ever be? So we hope.







travel #2



As our pilot took his place in the little boat, we steamed away from Sandy Hook, in company with several other ocean steamers, gradually separating from them, and losing sight of all land. Our ship was a fine one, nearly four hundred feet in length, forty-three in breadth, and rated at four thousand five hundred tons burden. She carried three masts, and her engines were of nearly seven hundred horse-power. Her usual rate of speed was twelve or thirteen miles per hour. Her condition, inside and out, was excellent. Her officers were very gentlemanly and courteous: She carried a crew of about ninety, and there were comparatively few passengers.

To one who has never taken a voyage, ocean life presents both pleasant and unpleasant aspects. It becomes quite tiresome to spend ten or twelve days within the narrow compass of a ship. One day's programme varies but little from those that preceded it. We breakfast at 8:30, take lunch at 1:00, and dine at 5:30. The fare is abundant; but the style of cooking is not such as we have been accustomed to, and seasickness does not add to its attractiveness. At table the captain sits at the head, and the other officers at the foot, while the first-class passengers take their places between.

Conversation is often quite interesting, as different countries and various experiences in traveling are described and commented on. Everything in the dining-saloon is fastened down solid, chairs, table, and all. When the weather is anywise rough, there is placed upon the table a framework made of four strips of wood, raised two or three inches high. The strips divide the table lengthwise into three spaces, and so keep the dishes from sliding off when the vessel rolls in a storm.

There are three classes of passengers aboard. Those in the first cabin associate with the officers, and can go anywhere in the ship. The second-cabin passengers pay less, and have poorer quarters. The steerage passengers are at the very hindmost part of the ship, where the vessel is steered. Their quarters are not very inviting; but they are carried cheaply. They are tossed about by the waves much worse than those in the center of the ship.

The first experiences out at sea are not generally pleasant. Old ocean is a very uneasy body. The great monster ship sways and rocks and pitches about like a swinging basket. One's head begins to feel curious, and his stomach catches the spirit of uneasiness everywhere prevailing. This grows more and more marked as the hours slowly pass by. As you look at the faces of some of your fellow-passengers, you see a noticeable paleness around the eyes and mouth. Now and then one of them loses his admiration for the beauties of old ocean's ever-changing aspect, and drops out of the company, and confines his attentions to the state-room. The second morning out, our company had NO particular desire for breakfast. Lunch and dinner came, and their places at the table were still vacant. Forty-eight hours slowly passed away, and still they clung to the little berths. The wind had risen. The surface of the ocean was like a huge, boiling pot. White-caps were plentiful. The sea was all hillocks and hollows, rolling and tumbling in wild confusion. We could not see much of it, but we could feel it plainly enough.

When the ship made a bigger lurch than usual, a great rush of green sea water would roll up, completely covering our windows, that, in a calm, were eight or ten feet above the water. At such times, everything loose in the room was flying about in dire confusion. We could then see why the glass in our windows had to be an inch thick, and why our narrow bed had to have such high side boards.

At such times it was anything but pleasant for the poor, seasick sufferers. Every roll added a pang, a twinge to the giddy, dizzy brain and the uneasy stomach. If the ship would only settle down! The moments seemed so long!

But we will drop this unpleasant subject, and go upon deck. One can never forget the grandeur and majesty of the ocean. The water, when quiet, is a deep blue, almost black. When foaming, it is a pale green. The waves do not come in long, continuous swells, but in ever-changing hillocks and hollows, ridges and depressions. It bears up the great ship with its thousands of tons as easily as the egg-shell is borne upon the surface of the water.

The sights at sea have been few. One day we saw a school of perhaps a dozen porpoises. For half an hour they seemed to be trying to keep the ship company. Every few minutes they would disappear below the surface, and then reappear, sometimes leaping entirely out of the water. Then they disappeared in the sea.

On another day we saw an iceberg in the distance. It looked as if it were two or three miles away, and ten or fifteen feet high, and perhaps one hundred feet long. The captain said it was probably ten miles away, over one hundred feet high, and a mile long. He could see it with his spy-glass much better than we. These are vast bodies of ice which are formed on the high, perpendicular cliffs of Greenland, by water flowing and freezing till they at last project so far out as to drop off by their immense weight. Four-fifths of their bulk is under water, and one can imagine what the size must be when they are a mile long and one hundred feet above the water.

One morning we saw little birds about as large as swallows, flying along close to the surface of the water, then dipping down into the water and dis-appearing from view. They kept close to the surface. Sometimes they remained floating some little time, then went out of sight in the dark waters. These were "Mother Carey's chickens," or "stormy petrels," or the "storm swallows;" for they are called by all these names. Here they were seven hundred miles from land. They ride upon the highest waves, in the storm, and seem perfectly at home.

All the voyage, sea gulls have been constantly flying about the ship. They follow often from shore to shore, picking up bits of food dropped from the ship. Their bodies look about as large as a dove's. Their wings are much larger. The ocean makes us think of God and his greatness. What an emblem of his boundless love! How precious to think he made it and rules it all, and that we can trust him without fear! Yes, our God made the world and all things therein. Best of all, he is our God.








THE landsman first crossing the briny deep, eagerly welcomes the approach to terra firma. Nine or ten days of shaking up, tossing and heaving, externally and  internally, usually satisfy him.

He will be found about noon each day carefully consulting the log of the ship, in which is daily given the latitude, and longitude, and distance sailed, and how far he has still to go to complete his voyage.

The passengers were up the last morning in good season, watching for the headlands of the north of Ireland. The previous day we had smelled the burning peat far out at sea. We got a bare glimpse of the land through the fog; and not long after, first sighted the bald headland of Scotland, called the Mull of Cantire. The word mull is the old Gallic word for head. It is a high, rocky point, against which the waves vainly beat with all their fury. We sailed down the Irish Channel, and up the Firth of Clyde, past several islands, the firth gradually narrowing up into the river Clyde.

We passed several pretty villages and places of summer resort, which looked neat and inviting.

As the tide was out, we could not sail up the river to Glasgow, our big ocean steamer drawing too much water. We therefore left our ship at Greenock, and went by rail to Glasgow, which we reached late in the evening. It seemed good to place our feet once more on the solid earth, though we had, on the whole, quite a pleasant voyage for the season of the year, and our ship and its officers had proved themselves well worthy of our confidence. Glasgow is the commercial and industrial metropolis, and the second city in size, in the United Kingdom. It is the greatest ship-building place in the world. Nearly two-thirds of the ocean and river steamers of Great Britain are built here.

Our captain said that a large majority of the engineers of the ocean steamers throughout the world hail from Glasgow. It is a clean and beautiful city. The people in the streets looked intelligent, well dressed, and well cared for. There is an immense amount of manufacturing carried on here.

The chemical works of Messrs. Tennant & Co. are the largest in the world, employing one thousand men. At their establishment is a chimney four hundred and fifty feet high, and another adjacent four hundred and sixty-eight feet high. In George Square there is a statue of Sir Walter Scott, of colossal size, bronze statues of Sir John Moore, James Watt, Sir Robert Peel, the Duke of Wellington, and Prince Albert, and Queen Victoria. It is a very beautiful place.

We had not long to stay in Glasgow, so taking the cars, we passed through Edinburgh, New Castle, Hull, and several smaller towns. The ride was very pleasant, and the scenery very beautiful. Though this was in the month of February, when snow, ice, and cold prevail in America, here in Scotland the farmers were plowing in the fields, the grass was quite green, the buds were opening, and the birds were singing. Yet Scotland is much farther north than many of the States where greater cold prevails. The influence of the sea and the great gulfstream flowing from the Gulf of Mexico, across the ocean, past England and Scotland, to distant Norway, moderates the climate greatly. As we passed along, we were struck with the neat appearance of the farms and the houses.

Instead of shingles, they were mostly covered with brick-colored tile. Many things seem strange and new to us. Though in Great Britain, where our own language originated, many of the terms are very differently used than in America. Instead of street cars, it is trams, and the track is a tramway; our baggage is all luggage; the ticket-office is a booking office; the conductor or brakes man is a guard; the baggage car is a van, and the freight cars are wagons.

Instead of going into the end of the car, as in America, and having the conductor go through the car to collect the tickets, we go in at the side, the car being divided up into little rooms, with a seat on each side, so that ten persons can sit in each compartment, and face each other. Instead of having stoves and a fire to keep the whole car warm, two large cans of hot water are occasionally put into the compartment, so that we can warm our hands and feet. The car doors are usually locked while the train is in motion. In the cities the omnibuses and trams are double-deckers, having steps running up so that about half of the passengers ride on top.

The streets are usually kept much cleaner and nicer than in America. We found the people very courteous and accommodating. In the larger places the depots are very fine buildings, usually roofed with thick glass, so the light can come in. Books and papers are kept for sale in many of them. They do not have any system of checking baggage, as in America, though they seem to take great care that it shall be safely carried.

The people of Scotland are intelligent. There are very few who cannot read or write. They are an enterprising and industrious people, and very proud of their country and its past history. It is rather amusing to a traveler to see how the people of every country think their own is the best, and their nation superior to all others. I suppose America is no exception to this rule. Scotland has produced many eminent men. Sir Walter Scott was a great poet, William Wallace and Robert Bruce were great heroes and patriots, and John Knox was a valiant reformer. Many other names have made Scotland illustrious. She has produced many of the great thinkers of modern times. The Scotch character is noted for its energy and tenacity. Scotland is an interesting country. Its mountains, rivers, and lakes are visited by large numbers from other lands, and the scenery is well worth beholding.













It seems almost absurd in such an article as this to pretend to speak of England, the greatest commercial nation on the globe and the mistress of the ocean, and of her great metropolis, the center of influence, commerce, and money in the world. The reader must remember that our trip was wholly on business, and not in any sense that of sight-seeing or pleasure. Hence comparatively few points of interest were seen, only such as happened to come in our way. This will perhaps explain why our account is so meager. Traveling rapidly by rail, and stopping at only a few places, not many points of interest are seen, and we can only briefly notice these.

In riding through England, one is struck with the thorough system of farming, the neatness of the houses and yards, the many populous cities, and the beautiful green grass and the plentiful flowers. If such was the appearance the first of March, what must it be in June? Instead of fences and stone walls, well-trimmed hedges are seen along the roadside. They were just putting forth their leaves. Most Americans would not enjoy the climate, however. There is much cloudy, foggy weather and drizzling rain, leaving a sense of chilliness and depression. Probably this is not so much so in the summer. There are not such great extremes of heat and cold as in America, but one longs for the clear sky.

The surface of the country is usually quite level. The land is nearly all owned by rich lords and the gentry, who have fine houses and horses, and rent their land to farmers. As the property descends to the eldest son or heir, it is all kept together in large estates. They have fine parks, and much land is kept for game, so they can have hunting parties and fine times. Thus the common people generally do not own their farms and homes, but rent of the rich and great. Americans would not like this feature. But perhaps it makes the country look all the more beautiful, as these fine estates are kept up in good shape, the parks are pleasant to the eye, and the castles and fine mansions add to their attractions. England is a beautiful country to look at.

Passing through the country so rapidly, we saw but little of the cities. We spent a few days at Great Grimsby, which is north from London, on the east coast of England. It contains some forty thousand inhabitants, and is a very pretty place. It is principally noted for its fisheries, which are said to be the most extensive of any in Great Britain or in the world. Most any morning, hundreds of small vessels can be seen unloading their slippery cargoes in all directions. The fish are caught with hooks and seines, in various parts of the sea, especially near Iceland, around which are many banks where they draw their nets in water from one hundred to eight hundred feet deep, and scoop the fishes up. Some of them are strange looking fish.

In and near Great Grimsby are about twenty-five persons who are keeping the Sabbath of the Lord.

Our new English paper, The Present Truth, is to be printed there. We spent a short time at Southampton, on the south coast of England. It is one of the oldest English cities, having existed away back in Roman times. Some of the great stone city gates are still standing, though most of the ancient walls are gone. The statue of Isaac Watts, who wrote so many excellent Christian hymns, stands in the public grounds. Southampton is a fine looking old town of some seventy thousand people. Here also we met with about thirty believers who are keeping the Sabbath. After our visit here, we went to the great city of London, a description of which we will give in our next article.











Two days were spent in London. That is but a little time in so large a place, and a portion of this was devoted to business. So we had little time to see the many wonderful things in it. London is almost a world of itself. It is of enormous size, containing four million people. It is about as large as any other two cities in the world. Take all the people in the great States of Michigan and Iowa, and put them into London, and also those of Vermont and New Hampshire, and all put together they only equal about the same number as the one city of London. Take the cities of New York, Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Boston, Washington, San Francisco, Buffalo, Baltimore, Louisville, and New Orleans, and all put together hardly equal London. It is the center of commerce, of finance, and of political influence for all the world.

"There are in it more Scotchmen than in Edinburgh, more Irishmen than in Dublin, more Jews than in Palestine, and more Catholics than in Rome." "In it are annually consumed 16,000,000 bushels of wheat, 400,000 oxen, 1,500,000 sheep, 130,000 calves, 250,000 swine, 8,000,000 head of poultry and game, 400,000,000 pounds of fish, 5,000,000 oysters, 1,200,000 lobsters, and 3,000,000 salmon." About 6,500,000 tons of coal are consumed yearly.

The bank of England is a vast edifice, covering a whole block, or about four acres of ground. It is surrounded by a high, solid stone wall, with no windows, and is lighted artificially. It is the money center of the world. The amount of money negotiated in the bank on an average daily amounts to over ten million dollars. It employs nine hundred persons, at an aggregate salary of over one million per year.

The Smithfield market, which is the principal one for the supply of beef, is an astonishing sight.

When one had seen it, he would not wonder why the British people are called "beef-eaters." All the other city markets I ever saw would make but a small corner of this. Near this is the spot where John Rogers was burned at the stake. The tower of London is an interesting place to visit. It covers about thirteen acres, and was commenced by William the Conqueror, A. D. 1078.

It was for many years used as a prison for State prisoners, and has witnessed many a bloody scene. Here the crown jewels or regalia were kept, among which are the crown of Queen Victoria and those of other royal personages. Here, in a small space, may be seen royal treasures valued at fifteen million dollars. In the tower are kept some forty thousand rifles and other implements of warfare, and figures on horseback, clad in ancient armor.

We were permitted to visit the hall where the House of Lords meet. The lord chief-justice of England, clothed in his official wig and gown, was hearing a case. The attorneys were also dressed in official costumes, such as would probably provoke smiles from American boys and girls.

Of course we went to Westminster Abbey, where the great and renowned of England are buried. A white marble bust of Longfellow, our American poet, has been placed there recently by his English admirers. Here was an ancient chair, in which Victoria sat when she was crowned, as did all the sovereigns of England. Underneath it was the famous stone of Scone, upon which the kings of Scotland used to be crowned. It was captured from the Scotts by Edward I., in 1297.

There were many statues of great men here, and many wonderful things, which we will not attempt to describe.

We spent an hour or two in the Zoological Gardens, which are said to contain the finest collection of wild beasts in the world. Barnum's white elephant (which, by the way, is not very white) was here. Lions, tigers, white, black, and grizzly bears, giraffes, hippopotamuses, and rhinoceroses, were to be seen, some of them of prodigious size. London is not a beautiful city. It is black with coal smoke, and very dingy. The fine monuments are in a little while as black as the elements can make them. But the rush of people and carriages, and the evidences of wealth, are astonishing, and long...to be remembered. How solemn to think all these multitudes in a little while must stand at the Judgment bar, and pass into eternity!











WE came from London to Paris in the night, crossing the English Channel in a small steamboat. The distance across from Dover to Calais was about twenty-four miles. We reached Paris in the early morning, and remained there only one day. We could see but a small portion of this immense city of two millions of people, in that length of time. However, we visited a few of the most prominent objects of interest. Paris was in existence before the time of Julius Caesar, though called Lutetia until A. D. 360, when Julian, who resided there, named it Parisii, from which the present name is derived. Since that time, there has been, under the kings of France, a gradual growth, so that from the time of the great Revolution it has rapidly increased in population, size, and beauty, till it has become probably the most beautiful city on the globe. In this respect it forms a striking contrast to London. There we see every evidence of wealth and power, business and commerce; but the fog and drizzle of that climate give everything exposed to them a dingy, poor appearance. Not so in Paris. The skies are clear, the buildings look clean and bright, the streets are usually broad, and adorned with trees, and the city has many town squares, in which are placed statuary and public monuments. Vast sums of public money have been expended in its adornment, in laying out public grounds, in erecting works of art, and in making it attractive to the visitors who throng the city every year to enjoy its pleasures. People go from all parts of the world to London on business, crowding its streets at times till they almost overflow; but to Paris they come for pleasure seeking, to enjoy themselves and spend their money for every kind of gratification of the senses.

While Paris is one of the most beautiful cities of the world, it is no doubt one of the most wicked. It seems to be referred to in the book of Revelation as the city "which is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt," doubtless because the sins which were committed in those countries are so prevalent in Paris. Pride, fullness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in Sodom. Such a condition of things prevails in Paris. Lovers of luxury and vice come from all parts of the world to tarry in it. We could not feel much at home in such a place. Some of the most terrible scenes of wickedness which have ever occurred in our world have transpired in Paris. Prominent among these are the massacre of St. Bartholomew, Aug. 24, 1572, and the scenes of the French Revolution. At the massacre of St. Bartholomew, leading Protestants, who were then called Huguenots, were invited to come to Paris to attend a royal wedding, when thousands of them were treacherously slaughtered, the king himself, it is said, firing upon his own subjects. It was a scene of awful horror. The river Seine was discolored by the blood of the victims.

The scenes of the French Revolution were, in some respects, the most horrible ever recorded in history. Infidelity and atheism had full sway, till no respect was shown for God or man. But these scenes are forgotten now amid the pleasures of sense. There are many beautiful gardens and public squares in Paris, which it would be impossible for me to describe in this article. Neither can I describe all the public buildings that are of such immense size and fine appearance. Among the most remarkable of the latter is, the palace of the Louvre, now used as a treasury of art, painting, etc., containing perhaps the most remarkable collection in the world. The palace of the Tuilleries is now occupied as government buildings and offices. These two palaces cover about forty-eight acres of ground. The Hotel Des Invalides and its grounds occupy about thirty acres. It was founded by Louis XIV., for the aged and disabled soldiers, nearly five hundred making it their home. Those who have been disabled by wounds, or have served thirty years, are entitled to be received in it. Besides comfortable board and lodging, each soldier receives a small pension. Under the dome of this building is the tomb of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose bones were brought back from St. Helena.

The cathedral of Notre Dame, founded in 1165, is the largest in the city, and one of the most famous in France. In it may be seen the gifts of the kings and emperors of France, censers of pure gold, and other sacred utensils used in the Catholic worship, and vestments of the richest and most costly kind. One could but think of the description of great Babylon given in the book of the Revelation while seeing these things,—how her great men were the kings of the earth, and how she was clothed with scarlet, gold, and precious stones. Here, it is claimed, are to be found fragments of the "true cross" and the "crown of thorns." In this cathedral, at nearly all times in the day and every day in the week, the faithful Romanists may be seen at their devotions, crossing themselves with holy water, or bowing in reverence before an image or some pictured saint, while saying their prayers or counting their beads. The public grounds in connection with the Tuilleries and the Louvre, and reaching to the "Arch of Triumph," are probably the finest in the world. This promenade is one and a third miles in length, planted with elm and lime trees, and very wide. The paved street leading through it is broad, affording room for many carriages to pass at once. The open space each side of the road is adorned with beautiful statuary, while long lines of lamps, lighted up at night, make the place look very brilliant. Various places for amusements are scattered through the grounds, and fountains of beautiful design are here and there interspersed. Everything that lavish expense could do to make it attractive seems to have been done here, in the summer season, from the middle of the afternoon till far into the night, may be seen the finest equipages, and multitudes of cabs, omnibuses, and other vehicles, and vast numbers of people, all intent on pleasure seeking. Music is not lacking, and we may be sure the god of this world feels that he has made a success in capturing the masses of the people by his well-laid schemes. At the farther end of this wonderful avenue is the "Arch of Triumph," the largest triumphal arch in the world. It stands upon a hill. The whole structure is one hundred and sixty feet in height, one hundred and forty-six in width, and seventy-two in depth. The central archway is sixty-seven feet in height and forty-six in width. The structure is of solid stone. It can, on account of its elevation, be seen from a large part of the city. It was commenced by Napoleon in 1806, to commemorate the victories of France, and was completed by Louis Phillippi, in 1836. There are various figures and representations sculptured upon it, and the names of the great victories of France are inscribed upon the stones. From this triumphal arch, radiate, like the spokes of a wheel, twelve fine avenues, leading through different parts of the city. It is a beautiful sight to stand on this high point after the street lamps are lighted at night, and see the little points of light in almost endless succession, many thousands in number, leading far into the depths of the city.

But this beautiful, wicked city has no place in our hearts. We look for one far more beautiful, where the streets are of gold, and the gates of solid pearl. Every citizen will have a fine mansion. Its walls are of jasper, and it is garnished with all manner of precious stones. But best of all, Christ our Lord will be there, and the inhabitants will all be righteous. In these respects it will be a wonderful improvement upon Paris or any other city in the world.











NORTHERN Italy is one of the fairest and best of God's gifts in nature. It is a beautiful and excellent heritage for any people. In climate, fruitfulness, and natural advantages it is almost unsurpassed. It contains the better class of the population of Italy. The contrast between the people here and those in Southern Italy is very great. This portion of the country is very thickly settled, and contains many fine cities. It is visited by large numbers from other countries, who come to enjoy its climate and its many opportunities for improvement in the arts. In sculpture, music, and painting, as well as in other branches of the fine arts, Northern Italy holds a very prominent position among those who worship the artistic; and it is considered almost necessary that those who prepare themselves for life-work in such branches should receive instruction here. Large numbers of persons from Germany, England, and America take up their residence in some of these Italian cities for a time or for life, and devote themselves to these pursuits. The most famous artists of America, among whom is Hiram Powers, the sculptor, have resided long in Italy. Here are afforded rare opportunities for instruction; and it is, in short, the fashionable thing to do. Custom and fashion are great powers in this world. Statues of great men, saints, and angels are wonderfully prevalent in Italy.

After this much by way of introduction, we will resume our railroad route. The contrast is very great on coming down from the mountains of Switzerland, with their rugged, snow-capped grandeur and wildness, to the mild climate of fair Italy. The extreme northern part of Italy is a region of beautiful lakes. Lake Lugano, Lake Como, and Lake Maggiore are the most prominent. The latter is thirty-seven miles long, and one or two miles wide. The country round about is charming.

The train passes through many vineyards, chestnut and walnut groves, and orchards of apple, pear, peach, plum, and cherry trees. Many visitors spend a season at these lakes. Our course is down the valley of the River Tocia, a beautiful stream. The country gradually becomes more level, and we find ourselves in the famous plains of Lombardy, of which Milan is the center. It contains, with its suburbs, upward of 300,000 people, and is one of the largest cities of the peninsula. Its existence can be traced back some six hundred years before Christ. It was one of the largest cities of Italy in the time of the Romans. It has passed through many vicissitudes, having been destroyed several times during the wars which have occurred so often in this country, and then has been again rebuilt. It is a very important manufacturing town. Silk and woolen goods are its principal staples. It stands in the highest rank for its works of art, especially that of sculpture.

The Cathedral of Milan is one of the largest in the world. There are only two in Europe which exceed it, —St. Peter's, in Rome, and the Cathedral of Seville, in Spain. The interior is 477 feet in length, 183 in width, and 155 in height. The dome is 220 feet high, and the tower 360 feet above the pavement. The roof is adorned by 98 gothic towers, and on the outside of the building there are over 2,000 statues in marble. It was begun in 1386, and is not yet completed. There are many other fine buildings in this city, but we had no time to look at them.

Our train passes through the plains of Lombardy and Piedmont to Turin. The first of these is so named from the Germanic tribe which invaded Italy, and appropriated to itself some of the finest portions of the territories of Rome. Lombardy contains nearly 4,000,000 of inhabitants, and covers about 9,000 square miles. It contains three different zones of cultivation: First, the regions of mountain pastures, where flocks and herds are plenty; then the undulating country of vineyards and fruit trees, where the silk culture is carried on; and then the level plains, covered with wheat, corn, and rice. The summers are hot and dry, very little rain falling beyond the lower Alps. The land here is more extensively irrigated than in any other portion of Europe. A failure of crops is therefore very rare. The ditches for letting in the water are visible in all directions. The country is very level. Meadows in some instances yield as many as twelve crops in a year, the winters being so warm as not to stop vegetation. This seems almost incredible, but it has been so stated on good authority. The silk culture seems to be very extensive, judging from the prevalence of mulberry trees, many hundreds of square miles throughout Northern Italy being covered with them. Everywhere, as far as the eye could see, are rows of these trees, set far enough apart so that the land can be cultivated between them. They do not look very beautiful, as the limbs are cut off two or three feet from the trunk, from which sprouts spring out, thus supplying the young worms with their food. In some sections, a large vine is planted close by the tree, so that it supplies a trellis for the vine, as well as furnishing leaves for the worms. Wesaw level fields prepared for the cultivation of rice. These have to be wholly flooded with water in the early stages of its cultivation. There is great sameness in the country between Milan and Turin. It is the most level country I ever saw. Turin is a city of some 250,000 people. It is situated upon the River Po, and traces its existence back beyond the Christian era. Its history has not been as famous as many of the Italian cities. It looks more like a modern city than any other we have seen in Italy, being quite regularly laid out. It has grown rapidly within the last twenty-five years. It was the residence of the kings of Italy from 1859 to 1865, and the capital of Italy. But Rome now has that honor. The north-east portion of Italy has been the center of the great struggle which has been going on for the last fifty years to make Italy a united kingdom.

This portion of it is peopled by the best quality of population in the peninsula.

We spent a short time in the mountain country of Piedmont, the home of the Waldenses.  Here is very beautiful scenery. In these valleys, during the dark ages of Catholic supremacy, many of the people gave their lives for the sake of their faith!

They were hunted to death because they would not renounce their Bible faith. Here are the caves where many of them hid. We should have been glad to visit them, but had not the time. In going through Northern Italy, we passed the famous battle fields of Magenta and Marengo. At the latter, Napoleon I. gained a great victory over the Austrians; and at the former, Napoleon III. also gained a victory over them.

Our route lay through Genoa. This is situated on the sea, and is the most important commercial city of Italy. It has about 180,000 people. It is strongly fortified, and as we passed along, we could see the bristling forts on almost every high hill.

In entering it, we passed through a long tunnel, and another on leaving it. Genoa was one of the most powerful cities of the world in the middle ages, disputing with Venice the supremacy of the seas. Its commerce then was far greater than that of London or Liverpool. But its power has long since passed away. The situation of the city is very fine and commanding, looking down upon the harbor from the heights which surround it.  But we can give but little description of it, for our stay was very short.











ON leaving Genoa for Rome, our route lay for many miles beside the blue Mediterranean. Genoa lies upon the sea; and at this latitude the climate is warm, and the sides of the hills fronting the sea are covered with vineyards and groves of lemons, oranges, figs, and olives. The quantities of lemons hanging upon the trees were immense. These trees are generally quite small, being only from three or four to ten or twelve feet in height; but they seemed to be loaded down with the yellow fruit. At the time of our visit, the fig-trees were just putting forth their leaves. These are low, spreading trees, not particularly beautiful. On some trees the fruit seemed to be much in advance of the leaves, hanging all over the trees in clusters as large as small plums. Our route along the seashore was very beautiful, when we were not inside the tunnels, which are very numerous, there being not less than eighty of them in a few hours' ride. However, these are quite necessary, because there are so many rocky promontories jutting out into the sea. So our ride is a constant succession of beautiful views of the sea, smiling valleys, groves of fruit trees, and tunnels. We could spare the latter, and not feel very bad about it; for it is not particularly pleasant, while beholding a beautiful scene of high, rocky headlands and the ocean, to have our train dash suddenly into a dark tunnel, where we must be shut in for a while with the smoke and darkness. It fitly illustrates this life, with its succession of lights and shadows, pleasant things and painful memories.

We pass many villages and towns, of which we cannot speak. We at length reach Pisa late in the evening, and stop off one train for an hour or two, that we may see the famous leaning tower by moonlight. We take a carriage, and cross the River Arno, and are soon at the cathedral tower, which lies at the outskirts of the city. The campanile, or clock tower, is one hundred and seventy nine feet in height, and is thirteen feet out of the perpendicular, so that it presents a very peculiar appearance. It is a beautiful building, eight stories high. Its foundation, which is below the level of the street, corresponds with the incline of the tower. This structure was begun in 1174, and completed in 1350. No one can tell how it happened to be built in this peculiar style, whether from design, or whether the foundation settled on one side. The philosopher Galileo availed himself of the oblique position of the tower to make experiments with weights hanging from the top, in order to ascertain the laws of gravitation. No other building in the world would have answered his purpose so well.

The cathedral itself is a fine structure built' in1118. The baptistery connected with it is a beautiful circular structure built wholly of marble. Its octagonal front, where persons were immersed, furnishes the best of evidence that in the twelfth century the Catholic Church immersed its candidates.

This is not now used. At present there is dug out in the top of one of the stones, a hollow place holding a small quantity of water, with which the candidates are sprinkled, thus proving that it was quite late before baptism was changed to sprinkling, even in the Catholic Church. Pisa is now but a small place of 26,000 people. It was founded before Christ, and was once a powerful city.  The country, in the approach to Rome, is not so well cultivated, nor so pleasant, as in some other portions of Italy. We cross the yellow, muddy Tiber, which resembles the Missouri in color more than any other river I ever saw. It is not a large stream. As we near the city, we see ruined portions of the old wall, and aqueducts, high above the ground, and supported by arches, these being built for the purpose of conveying water to the city from long distances. Ruins of old buildings are met with on every hand.

Soon we find ourselves in Rome. We can hardly realize that we are in a city some two thousand and five hundred years old,-the home of Julius Omar, Augustus, Nero, and Titus; the place where the apostle Paul, for Christ's sake, suffered and died a martyr's death; where popes have held sway for ages over the church and the world, and have here issued their papal edicts causing the death of millions of the martyrs of Christ. But so it is. As we drive through the streets, we behold here and there the ruins of beautiful statues and fountains, ancient buildings, and ancient columns, monuments, and pillars that are covered with hieroglyphics, and were brought there from Egypt nearly two thousand years ago.

There are figures of lions and wild animals. There are many famous buildings; and in prominent places may be seen plenty of the Latin inscriptions of the popes, always closing with the imposing title of  "Pontifex Maximus," the Supreme Pontiff, the self-styled head of the church of Christ on earth.

One's feelings are peculiar, as he thinks of the past, and remembers how prominently this city has figured in the history of the world. It has exerted an influence in the affairs of men which no other city has ever done. It styles itself the "Eternal City;" but the great space within the ancient limits now filled with crumbling ruins, and the general aspect of decay, show that its claims to the name "eternal" are very unreal. As we have but a day or two to stay, we are obliged to make very hasty visits to the different points of interest, some of which we will describe in our next article.





KEEP your face toward the Sun of Righteousness.  Then the shadow of self will fall behind you, and not darken your way. Then you will have a sure guide whose brightness no false, delusive light can outshine.







IN our brief stay, we could take only a hurried look at the principal objects of interest. We visited the church of St. John of Lateran, one of the oldest cathedrals in the city, to see the beautiful statuary. This cathedral is on the opposite side of the city from St. Peter's. In Constantine's time, and for hundreds of years after, it was the principal church in the city. It has been rebuilt several times. Here is one of the most beautiful pieces of statuary I ever saw, representing Christ as he was taken down from the cross, with his mother supporting his head. The expression of the countenances and the fineness of the work are something wonderful. In a building close to the church is a flight of twenty-eight marble steps, brought to Rome by the Empress Helena in A. D. 326. It is said that they were taken from the palace of Pilate in Jerusalem, and were the stairs ascended by Christ before his crucifixion, so that for this cause they are considered very holy. They are called the Scala Santa. They are covered with wooden steps, and people are permitted to ascend them only on their knees; other steps are provided at the sides, by which people can descend. 'These are the steps up which Luther was painfully toiling on his knees, when there came to his mind the scripture concerning justification by faith, and he then saw the uselessness of such works as he was engaged in. We saw quite a number of people going through the exercise of climbing them on their knees.  Some went up a step, and then bent down, and kissed the step with great reverence. Poor souls!  How sad it seemed to see people so blinded with foolish superstition as to think there could be any value in such an exercise! While looking on, a dozen boys came in, and went through the same exercise. They were probably a class of scholars that the church had in training. They laughed and had a merry time as they ascended the stairs.  That these steps were the ones Christ ascended to enter Pilate's palace seems exceedingly improbable, when we remember that Jerusalem was leveled to the ground in A. D. 70. That these steps were preserved under these circumstances for nearly two hundred years is very doubtful; but then, they are just as good for the purpose to which they are put as the original ones would be.

We next visited the Coliseum, once one of the largest theaters in the world, and now one of the most imposing monuments of the old Roman times. It was finished by Titus in A. D. 80, having been erected for the accommodation of the vast crowds who came to witness the gladiatorial combats. These combats lasted one hundred days, and oftentimes five thousand wild beasts were slain. The building contained seats for 87,000 spectators. This vast structure is nearly one-third of a mile in circumference, and is in the form of an oblong circle, 615 feet in length, 510 feet in breadth, and156 feet high.  The arena, where the gladiators and wild beasts fought, was .in the center, in size 279 by 174 feet.  Above the arena rose the seats, tier upon tier, intersected by steps and passages. The outside of the building is composed of blocks of stone, originally held together by clamps of iron. Brick was used on the Inside work. Underneath the building and the arena were dens and chambers for wild beasts. Only about one-third of this vast building remains. For centuries, it was used as a sort of quarry from which to obtain building materials.  The iron holding the stones together was taken away, and it became a pile of ruins. On only one side do the walls retain their original height. Yet the building material still remaining is valued at $2,500,000. What a building this must have been in the time of its glory! What a monument of the power of Rome! And what a scene it must have presented when filled with the 87,000 spectators, who were watching the conflict going on in the arena between the lions, tigers, leopards, and other of the most ferocious wild beasts, and the men who were compelled to fight with them for the amusement of these cruel Romans! Thousands of Christians were in this place torn in pieces by the wild beasts.  A little distance from the Coliseum is the triumphal arch of the Emperor Constantine. It has three archways, and the structure is covered with sculptures. It was erected to commemorate his victories. Nearby are the ruins of Constantine.  Some little distance away, yet in plain view, is the arch of Titus. It is smaller than the other arch, and has but one archway. It was built to commemorate the victory he obtained over the Jews when Jerusalem was taken, and the temple destroyed. Among the other things sculptured upon it is a representation of the golden candlestick, with its seven branches. Here is evidence which cannot be gainsaid of the truth of the Bible.   Here, cut in the solid stone, to honor the victories of a heathen emperor, is a representation of the golden candlestick made in the wilderness in the time of Moses, nearly four thousand years ago. Infidels can never dispute its existence against such evidence.

All around this triumphal arch are to be seen interesting ruins. A few steps away lies the Roman Forum. This was the central point of interest in ancient Rome; and here the most famous scenes in Roman history were enacted. In the open space of the Forum, public assemblies were held. Here the great orators spoke; public business was discussed; and those mighty plans were formed which resulted in the subjugation of the known world. Funerals, courts of law, and gladiatorial combats were also held here.  Near by the Forum stood the temple of Vesta, with its "eternal fire;" and the Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of their heathen religion, whose title the pope afterwards stole, resided in the vicinity.  The Forum was once embellished with columns and beautiful sculpturing; now it is only a heap of ruins. Broken columns and portions of ancient walls still stand in and around it. It was not until the present century that the rubbish, which forages has covered it, was to any extent cleared away. During the Dark Ages, the Romans used it as a quarry from which to obtain material for building churches and houses. They burned the marble into lime, so that vast numbers of the monuments of antiquity were destroyed. The Forum was covered many feet deep with rubbish, so that on removing it, the original pavement was found to be much below the surrounding streets.

Once there stood here triumphal arches and monuments of every description, in gilt and bronze; now all is desolation, broken pillars, and ruins.

What a commentary on human greatness! The rubbish has been removed from quite a large space, so that we got something of an idea of the ancient Forum; but there is yet quite a pile of rubbish all around, perhaps to the depth of twenty feet.  Some of the greatest events of the world's history occurred here, making this one of the memorable spots in Europe.











THIS city is a place so full of interest that we must take a little more space to notice it. Volumes could not give all the interesting particulars. Among other places, we visited the Pantheon, the "only ancient edifice in Rome which is still in perfect preservation as regards the wall and vaulting." It was a temple for all the gods, and was built B. C. 27, by M. Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus. It was consecrated to all the saints A. D. 609, by Pope Boniface IV. The ancient statues of the gods were removed, and those of saints have taken their places. Probably to the true God the worship of the one was as acceptable as the worship of the other. The building is circular, the height of the dome and the diameter of the building being equal,—140 feet. Its walls are 20 feet thick, and it has no windows, the light coming wholly from a circular aperture at the top. Formerly it was reached by several steps; now the streets are higher than the entrance. Capitol Hill is one of the greatest points of interest in Rome.   This one of the smallest of the "Seven Hills," but, historically, the most important of them. Romulus is said to have founded his asylum here; and here was located the temple of Jupiter and Juno. There now stand on the hill two palaces, containing a large amount of ancient and modern statuary and many paintings. The ancient statues have been discovered in the rubbish and in various other places, and are kept here on exhibition. There are chambers filled with the statues of the philosophers, emperors, and gods of ancient Greece and Rome. A student of history will find this place full of interest. Here are the heads of Socrates, Demosthenes, Cicero, and other notable personages, carved in marble.  Some of the countenances are very fine, but the most of the mare not, those like that of the tyrant Nero being anything but lovely in expression. They are not as white as modern statues, but they are wonderfully well preserved after two thousand years exposure. Many of these monuments were once covered with gilt. In the open space at the summit of the hill are several very large equestrian statues. Of course we visited St. Peter's church, one of the most remarkable buildings in the world; we cannot attempt to give any idea of its wonders, so we will merely give a few particulars. The cathedral is situated on the right bank of the Tiber. The territory about it was not included in ancient Rome. But the emperors had gardens in this part; and here was a circus, where Nero showed such cruelty to the early Christians, and where some of the earliest martyrdoms took place. For this reason the associations connected with it were very sacred to the early church, and at an early date a church was here erected to the honor of St. Peter.  A citadel was built here, making it a place of safety at the time when the barbarians so often attacked the city. This, after many years, became the Castle of St. Angelo, the strongest fortress of the city.

The bridge of five arches crossing the Tiber is ornamented by the statues of ten gigantic angels.

We pass the castle of St. Angelo, which is connected with the Vatican by a covered causeway, so the pope can flee to it for protection in time of danger. St. Peter and the Vatican are close beside each other. The Vatican is the largest palace in the world. The pope has kept himself shut up here since his temporal dominion has been taken away from him, so as to show his displeasure. He makes no public appearance as formerly. But the world seems to go on just as well without it. The Vatican contains a vast number of works of art.  The court in front of St. Peter's is very fine. It is, in length, 1110 feet, in breadth, 780, in the form of an ellipse; and it has two of the most beautiful fountains I ever saw. The sides of the cathedral are formed by imposing colonnades supported by four series of huge columns, forming three passages underneath the roof, the middle of which permits two carriages to drive abreast. Out of this court we ascend by steps to the church. A large Egyptian obelisk stands in the middle of the court. The cost of this court was about $1,000,000.

The outside of St. Peter's is not so fine as some buildings I have seen. But as soon as one enters it, he is lost in wonder and admiration. The foundation was laid 1506, and it was consecrated 1626, being one hundred and twenty years in building. It cost about $50,000,000. It is the largest cathedral in the world. Its length, including the portico, is 696 feet. It is in the form of a cross, and is 450 feet in the widest part. The height of the nave is 150 feet, and that of the dome up to the lantern is 403 feet; and to the summit of the cross, 435 feet. The diameter of the dome is 138 feet. The church contains twenty-nine altars and one hundred and forty-eight columns. Beneath the dome rises the imposing bronze canopy, borne by four richly gilded spiral columns.

It is 95 feet in height, and weighs about 93 tons. Under this canopy is the high altar, where only the pope reads mass upon great festivals. Beneath it is said to be the tomb of St. Peter and St. Paul.

We descended to it by marble steps; a gilded door is opened, and in a gilt box, one or two feet square, their bones are said to repose. Whether the bones are theirs or some other person's is a matter we will not attempt to decide. It really makes little difference, provided the credulous Catholics only think they belong to the apostles.

The magnificence of the interior of this church is indescribable. - One can easily believe the prophet's words, which declare that the kings and the great men and rich men of the earth have supplied great Babylon with her merchandise and precious things. Read Revelation 18. On every side are statues of popes, with the keys and the triple-crown, and the high-sounding title "Pontiffex Maximus." Statues of angels and saints, in the finest marble, abound everywhere.

One of the most remarkable features is the pictures in mosaic. They are made of very small pieces of stones of different colors, put together in such a way that at a little distance they look like a very fine painting. But there is no paint whatever about them. They are all stone, and so will endure for ages without change. Some of these pictures are 12x20 feet, representing Bible scenes, and they are very beautiful. There are thousands of square feet of this kind of work in St. Peter's, made of these little pieces of stone with a surface of perhaps one-fourth of an inch square, all combined into these great pictures, looking like the finest paintings. What an immense amount of labor this must have cost!

But the effect of all this magnificence upon my spirits was to make me feel very sad. What was it all for?-To glorify the Catholic Church, to hold the admiration of the masses, and to rivet the superstition and homage of the masses to the apostate church which has corrupted the pure religion of Jesus. Here was a bronze image, which they call the image of St. Peter. However, it does not look at all like their own pictured representations of the apostle; and the best evidence goes to show it is an old statue of Jupiter, a heathen god. I saw scores of fine-looking people come up and kiss the foot of this image, and bow their heads down upon it with the greatest reverence. That foot has been kissed so much that the metal is kept constantly bright, and is considerably worn away by the friction of human lips. What a commentary on Romanism! We were never more thankful for God's pure and holy truth than when we left the magnificent St. Peter's, with its heathen worship.











THE route from Naples to Venice passes through Rome, Florence, and Bologna. Much of it is very pleasant indeed. Our train stopped two or three hours at Rome, so we took a carriage, and visited St. Peter's again for a short time, to see the large frescoes that were covered up on our former visit. It was during what is called "Holy Week," which is designed to commemorate the period of our Lord's sufferings, crucifixion, and resurrection, the ancient Passover, etc. The Catholic Church, many centuries since, changed the day of celebrating the Passover, so that the principal day always falls on a Sunday. This was one of the first steps toward the change of Sabbath to Sunday, which the same church afterward undertook to accomplish. There are various fasts and festivals which center around the time of our Lord's crucifixion. The time for a short period before the principal day is looked upon as a period of mourning, so that all the fine mosaic pictures are kept covered; but after that point where Christ was supposed to have arisen, all is changed to rejoicing.

On the morning of our return to St. Peter's, we found the religious services of the Catholic Church in progress. We had only a short time to remain; but the scene was quite interesting. In the different recesses of the vast church are found altars where religious services are held. At one of the se altars a large number of priests and magnates of the church were assembled, dressed in their robes and strange-looking costumes. There was more or less singing in Latin, chanting and reading in the same tongue by different individuals, considerable bowing before images, and other different forms of adoration. It seemed to us not the true worship of God, but an elaborate effort to a make show, and to fill the minds of the devoted Catholics with awe.  It did not, however, have that effect upon us. We could not see in it much resemblance to the worship in which our Lord and his apostles engaged.  It looked far more like the system of heathenism from which it was derived. After spending sometime in observing the worship, we resumed our journey.

The scenery between Rome and Florence is, in many respects, very pleasant. We passed many pretty villages and one or two lakes. The railroad, in one place, climbed the mountain's side, now passing through tunnels, and now high up on ridges, from which we had a very beautiful view of the valley sand scenery below. It seems wonderful to persons coming from America to see how the people improve all the tillable ground on the mountain sides.  Where it is so steep that, in America, one would not think it possible to cultivate the soil, they have, in this country, raised terrace after terrace on the steep sides of the hills. They do this by building up, from below, stone walls two or three feet in height, and then filling this up with soil, so that its surface will be much less steep than the hillside on which it is built. Then another wall, and another, and so on, so that in many places there are scores, and, in some instances, hundreds, of these terraces, rising one above another up the mountain height. In these plats, vines and fruit trees are planted, as well as various kinds of plants.. Little patches of irregular shape, containing from one to a few rods, hedged in on the sides by rocks, are cultivated wherever there is soil enough to raise anything. This must have cost an immense amount of labor.  Florence is one of the finest cities of Italy. But we had no time to stop and see its many attractions.  It contains about 150,000 inhabitants, and was founded during the first century before Christ. Since the fourteenth century, it has become famous for its advancement in the arts and sciences.  Thousands come here from all parts of the world to become more proficient in sculpture, painting, and music. It has a fine cathedral, and many other buildings which it would be interesting to visit; and the finest galleries of paintings in the world are found here.

Bologna, the next large city on 'our route, contains nearly 100,000 inhabitants. It is over 2000years old, and has been an important place for many centuries. The study of medicine and philosophy was introduced here at an early period, and the anatomy of the human frame was here first taught in the schools in the fourteenth century.  Galvanism was here discovered by Joseph Galvani, in 1789.

Leaving Bologna, we again pass through a portion of Lombardy, the level country of Northern Italy lying between the Alps and the Appennines.  In this section of the peninsula is the most level country we have yet passed through. As far as the eye can reach in all directions, are thousands upon thousands of mulberry trees. Northern Italy is one of the greatest silk-producing countries in the world. A few years ago, a disease attacked the silk-worms, and very seriously interfered with the profits of the business.  We here crossed the River Po, which is quite a large stream. As we drew near the city of Venice, the land became very flat and wet. The city is built on islands lying a few miles from the main land; but the railroad is graded across to the city, so that it can now be no longer called an island. Venice has, in its day, been a very famous city, occupying something the same position in the commercial world that London, Liverpool, and New York do at the present time. The commerce of the East and West passed through it, and its shipping extended to all parts of the Mediterranean.  It exerted its greatest influence between the eleventh and the fifteenth centuries; and, during this period, it was the great focus for the commerce of Europe. It then contained 200,000 inhabitants, with some three hundred sea-going vessels, manned by 8,000 sailors, and three thousand smaller vessels, manned by some 17,000 men, as well as a fleet of forty-five galleys, carrying 11,000 men, who maintained the supremacy of the republic over the Mediterranean. About that time the Turks conquered Constantinople, and through routes to far distant India were discovered, by which the commerce of the world was turned into new channels; so that since that time, Venice has greatly declined. The population is now over 100,000, of whom over one fourth are paupers.  Venice is a very peculiar city. Its streets are canals, the carriages, gondolas, a novel kind of boats. We did not see a single horse in the whole city. It seemed strange to step out of the buildings into boats whenever we wished to go from place to place. The streets do not afford a very good playground for the children. The 15,000 houses and palaces of Venice are situated upon three large and one hundred and fourteen small islands, separated by 150 canals, that are spanned by 378 bridges, most of them stone. Altogether, the city is about seven miles in circumference. It was formerly ruled by an aristocracy, the principal ruler being called the Doge, or duke. The Piazza (Place) of St. Mark is the most interesting point in the city. It is a large square, paved with blocks of stone, 192 yards in length on the west side; on the east, 90 yards. On three sides it is enclosed by imposing structures, which appear to form one vast marble palace, blackened by age and exposure to the weather. The Palace of the Doges is one of the largest structures.  It contains many statues of these ancient worthies.  On the back side of it, across the narrow canal, is a very large prison; and a bridge connects the palace with the prison. This is called the Bridge of Sighs. It is said that those who passed over this bridge from the palace to the prison never appeared again to the light of day. There were torture chambers in this prison, and cruel scenes were enacted here.

The Grand Canal forms the main street of the city, nearly two miles in length, from 33 to 66 yards in width, being in the form of a huge letter S. Hundreds of gondolas and other craft are seen here, gliding in every direction. It is a very beautiful scene to see the boats in the evening, gliding here and there, each one carrying a light.  In different places may be heard bands of music giving serenades, and all seems strange and unreal.  We do not fancy Venice as a place of residence, as we would much prefer the solid earth to a city whose streets are water. Probably there is not another such city on the face of the globe.











WE left Venice on the Steamer Milano, at 11 P.M., and reached Trieste about seven the next morning.  Trieste is in Austria, and is its principal seaport, containing, with its suburbs, over 130,000 inhabitants.  It lies at the northeastern end of the Adriatic Sea. It is quite a pleasant town, with a fine harbor. The city was founded way back in the ancient Roman times. It was then called Tergeste.  From this place we take the train for Buda-Pesth, the principal town of Hungary. Our router an along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, gradually climbing the high bluffs, and affording a most beautiful view of the sea. On the sides of the bluffs were planted groves of fruit trees of various kinds, oranges, lemons, figs, and an abundance of grapes. After a few miles of climbing, we came up onto the top of a high bluff. The country for the first thirty miles or so was almost a solid rock.

The strata or layers of rocks set up edge wise, and a person could walk many miles without touching the soil. Yet here and there persons had dugout the stone, and, piling it into walls, had succeeded in getting at a little soil. Gradually, the country has begun to improve; but I never saw so much rock in a given space before.

Our way continued along the hillsides, passing occasionally through a tunnel, until we reached the town of Leibach, which is quite a pleasant-looking place near the River Save. This is a beautifully clear mountain stream, running over the cleanest of stones, through scenery which reminded me much of New England, especially Vermont. There are some very pretty views along the line of this river. We also crossed the Drave; but it was in the night, so that we could not see it. We were in a strange country indeed, among people such as we had never seen before,—a mixture of Magyar, Salars, Croats, Servians, and Austrians, with a sprinkling of Italians. The Austrian Empire is composed of a variety of nationalities, which are not especially friendly to each other; but it manages to hold them together by the power of the soldiery.

The people, however, looked superior to some we have seen in Italy, and some appeared quite intelligent and energetic.

As we approached the Danube, the country became quite level, and reminded me of the broad plains bordering on the Missouri. The Danube itself is a mighty stream, very nearly as wide as the Mississippi at Burlington, Iowa.  Buda-Pesth, or rather the two cities of Buda and Pesth, are situated on opposite sides of the Danube, and are connected by a massive suspension bridge. The place is strongly fortified, the fortifications being placed on a hill opposite the bridge, the road passing through a tunnel near the castle. The Romans once had a city here. The population is upward of 350,000. It is a very fine city, looking neat and clean, like the modern cities of France, Great Britain, or the United States. We were surprised to see so fine a city in this distant part of the world, Buda-Pesth has long been the capital of Hungary, which really claims to be an independent country, though connected with Austria. They have their own parliament, and make their own laws.  Our route to Roumania was down the valley of the Danube, through Hungary, passing Szeged in, an important commercial town of 75,000 people.  This town was almost entirely ruined by a disastrous inundation in 1879, which submerged the surrounding districts, and caused the death of 2,000 people. We also passed through Temesvar, a city of about 35,000 people; and Orsora, near which we crossed the line between Hungary and Roumania.

Hungary is really a very fine country, rich in all kinds of resources. It resembles our great West more than any other country I have seen in Europe.  Vast fields of grain lie in every direction along the railroad. Grassy plains, with numbers of sheep and cattle, stretch away in the distance; and evidences of agricultural wealth abound. I could almost fancy myself in our own country, were it not for the different appearance of the people. In the cool air of the early April morning, after a refreshing shower, loads of grain and a vast number of teams were seen driving toward the principal towns. A large number of travelers on foot were seen going with the teams, many women traveling along with the men, barefooted and dressed anything but tastily. We never saw such a scene in America.

We fancy our American ladies would hardly be willing to travel in this manner; but these women did not seem to mind it in the least. Men with sheep-skin caps and sheep-skin coats, with the wool on the inside, were also frequently seen. Their feet were dressed with a kind of sandals, with cloths wound around the ankles and lower limbs; and as they waded along in the mud, they looked decidedly uncomfortable.  We now and then noticed a bird that resembled our crow both in size and appearance. His head and wings were perfectly black, but the body was of a grayish color. As we could not talk with any one, we did not learn its name. Fruit trees abound in all parts of the country we traversed.  We were much better pleased with Hungary                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   than we expected to be. It was named from the Hirns, who were originally Tartars. They came from Asia in the first century of the Christian Era, in vast hordes, and were among those who helped break up the Roman Empire. The Magyars are a branch of the ancient stock which settled in this country sometime after, and are distinct from most of the inhabitants of Europe in their language.

There have been bitter feuds between this people and the Sclays and other nations; but though far less in number, the Magyars have thus far held their own. Their country is being very rapidly developed by the many railroads which are building through it. It possesses mineral treasures of various kinds, and furnishes the markets of Central

Europe with several agricultural products. The northern portion, intersected by the Carpathian Mountains, possesses minerals in abundance, from rock salt to precious stones, as well as an inexhaustible supply of timber. The religion is Catholic and Protestant. There is a large amount of shipping on the Danube and other streams of Hungary.












ROUMANIA is a country so little known to Americans that possibly some account of what we saw there may interest the readers of the INSTRUCTOR.  The usual route of European travel lies in England, Scotland, France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Holland, etc.; for in these countries are found the most beautiful scenery, the largest wealth, and the highest stage of cultivation and refinement.

Roumania was much better known to the Greeks and Romans than these other countries; but "westward the star of empire takes its way," and Roumania is now little known or thought of.

Our contact with the nations of the orient awakened a sad train of reflections.  With nations as with individuals, there is a period of youth and vigor, and a season of old age.  We, cannot restore old people to the vigor and bloom of youth, and it is almost equally hard to do so with a nation.

There is not an example in history where a nation, once fallen, ever; rose again to its first state. Egypt, once the most learned and the mightiest kingdom of the earth, is today "the basest of kingdoms."  And it is measurably so with the other kingdoms.  Had these nations always followed the path of righteousness and virtue, they need not have become so enfeebled.

But the tendency of modern nations is in the same direction as those that have preceded them.  History so repeats itself!  And should God grant them time to run their course, we would doubtless see the same sad results as in the ancient nations.

There is only this hope for the world, that God will bring about a better state of things by the salvation of the good at the second coming of Christ. Then will be a perfect government, and peace will reign to the ends of the earth.

But we must proceed with our description of Roumania. It is the same country that was ancient called Dacia, an important province of the old Roman Empire. Its inhabitants are descendants of those so long under the Roman Empire in that province. The language bears a strong resemblance to the modern Italian, and both have their foundation in the ancient Latin. But both have become mixed with the language of the other tribes who have occupied the country, or have had intercourse with the people. There are some 10,000,000 people who speak the Roumanian tongue. Only four or five millions of them, however, live in Roumania.

For centuries this country has been under the control of the Turkish Empire, and has paid tribute to it. When the Turks conquered Constantinople, several hundred years ago, their armies poured through Eastern Europe, and conquered the countries bordering on the Black Sea, portions of Hungary, and nearly captured Vienna, the capital of Austria. From that time till within a few years, when the Russian army drove the Turks out, Roumania has had to pay tribute. But the Roumanians, Bulgarians, and other nations inhabit these countries, were always restive under the rule of the Turks.

The Roumanian religion is Greek Catholic, which, in its forms and ceremonies, much resembles the Roman Catholic. The Greek Catholics, however, do not acknowledge the authority of the pope. There are many Roman Catholics, too, in the country; but the Protestant churches have few adherents. Russia holds the same religious faith as Roumania, and on this account a strong sympathy exists between them. Sympathy in religious matters is the strongest tie which binds peoples together, unless it be self-interest. Both of these influences unite the peoples of Eastern Europe to Russia. Russia greatly desires to obtain Constantinople for her capital, and these nations are equally anxious to obtain the assistance of Russia against their great enemy, the Turk, who has so long oppressed them. Roumania now has a king; and although It small territory, with about 5,000,000 inhabitants, she is training her soldiers, as are also the larger powers of Europe.  Roumania lies between Russia and Bulgaria, and borders upon the Black Sea on the east. The River Danube, a stream almost as large as our Mississippi, traverses the whole southern extent of this country.

The appearance of the land reminded me of many parts of the great West. The country is not so thickly settled as are many portions of Europe. Here and there were many fine groves of trees. Fruits of Various kinds, such as apples, pears, cherries, and grapes abound. We saw many fields of corn, quite an uncommon sight in most of the countries of Europe. The country was quite level in some places; portions of it looked much like Nebraska, and there were rivers as yellow as the Missouri. There were droves of cattle and flocks of sheep, with young boys and girls tending them, as in some portions of the West; and there were yokes of oxen plowing.

Indeed, one could almost fancy that he was on the broad western prairies, if it were not for the odd-looking houses and people.

The turbans on their heads and the sandals on their feet gave the people a decidedly oriental appearance.  The costumes of many were indescribable, so far as being able to give any clear idea of them to any one who had not seen them, is concerned. Although it was April, and quite cool, some had on pants of thin, white cotton cloth.

Their feet were dressed in something which looked like Indian moccasins, and their limbs were wrapped around, up to their knees, with what appeared to be old cloths. There were various efforts at adornment, even among the poorest, some indulging in brass jewelry, and a cheap kind of embroidery, and vests of high colors. They look very strange indeed to a Western man. Many were about as wretched-looking people as I had anywhere met, with the exception of those in Naples. Only about half the people can read or write. But then, when in Italy, a very intelligent man told me that only twenty-five per cent of the Italians could read or write. He said the statistics of the country showed this. We cannot realize the ignorance, squalor, and degradation of the mass of people in these countries near the orient.

We saw mangy gypsies in Roumania. Many of them were darker skinned than the American Indians, and they were a hard looking set. Everywhere in the cities, dogs were yelping, fighting, howling, and barking,-miserable curs, quite unlike the well-trained dogs of our country. They are the scavengers of the streets. The city houses are, as a general thing, small and poor, and not remarkably clean. Fleas and vermin are plentiful.

The churches are built in oriental style, with large, round cupolas and minarets. The buildings did not look inviting. We were there at the time they celebrate the Passover. The week before, we had seen it celebrated at Rome. Years ago, the Greek and Roman churches separated in the time of celebrating this feast. In the State churches of Europe, the people make great account of these feast days, much more so than they do of Sunday.

On Sunday, they have pleasure parties, military parties, horse-racing, shooting matches, etc. We saw very little evidence of its being kept as a sacred day anywhere outside of America and Great Britain. The other religious holidays and feast days are days of pleasure. But we will be obliged to postpone our description of the Passover until another time.












At this Passover celebration we were at Pitisti, a city of some 15,000 people. The feast lasted for three days. Religious services were held in the morning, and for the rest of the day the people enjoyed themselves the best they knew how.  On a hill at the edge of the city there was a large gathering, the most grotesque I ever saw. There had been erected some eight or ten swings of a very peculiar kind. They were made after this fashion: In the ground, some twelve feet apart, were set two crotched posts, twelve feet in height.  A large stick, rounded so that it would turn easily, was placed in these crotches. Four mortises were made in it at each end, and arms, perhaps eight feet long, were put through. At the end of these arms a cross-piece was fastened, and hanging down below these cross-pieces were two rude chairs, eight in all, for persons to sit in. By means of large handles placed at the end of the large central axle which lay in the crotches, men turned the whole thing over like a huge wheel. The chairs were swung so that they would hang down perpendicularly all the while. Men were rolling these huge wheels over, while their living freight of eight persons were sometimes sixteen feet high in the air, and then down almost to the ground.

The sight of ten of these huge wheels all turning over at once, with their curiously dressed occupants, was indescribably ludicrous to me.  They had some tents pitched, and persons in hideous masks made sport for the crowd. They had rude bagpipes and drums for music. Eatables and drinkables, candy, cakes, etc., were plentiful.

Remember that these were special religious holidays, lasting for three days. This will perhaps give you a good idea of the religious habits of the people. Formalism and pleasure-seeking together make up the religion of large portions of Europe. On these feast days and holidays, the business houses are usually closed, and the people cease their labor, and have what they call a goodtime.

One strange costume I had almost forgotten to mention. It consisted of a sheepskin cap with the wool on the outside, and a sheepskin coat with the wool on the inside. It was rather a greasy-looking dress.

Many countenances that we saw were 'anything but beautiful and refined.'  But lest my readers should get a wrong impression, I must not forget to say that there were many intelligent and interesting people in Roumania, who would not do discredit to any country. Many of them can speak French, and they compose the better class.  The valley of the Danube is a fine country, containing excellent soil. The birds are protected, so that they have become very tame. The people build their chimneys with a flat space on top for the storks to build their nests on. The storks return year after year, and rear their young in the same place. This is as it should be. Man, the strongest and wisest of God's creatures, should care for and protect the defenseless, instead of shooting for sport any of God's created things.

While we were up in a dizzy tower, we could see the storks and their nests in all directions. Some storks were flying about, and they looked as if they would surely fall, and be dashed in pieces.  But they sailed around us as unconcernedly as though they were walking on the ground.  But we must not forget to say a little concerning the famous Strassburg clock, though it has been described so many times that it hardly seems worth-while to speak of it. The clock stands in the lower story of the Stirassburg cathedral. We had the privilege of being present at noon, the most interesting time for observing the workings of the clock. We found perhaps two hundred persons there, waiting, like ourselves, to hear the clock strike. A fine-looking gentleman, dressed up in official style, sought us out, and asking if we were strangers, took us to a favorable place, and explained to us the wonders of the clock. We were, of course, much pleased with his civility and condescension; but we lost a little of our appreciation of his courtesy when we found out soon after that a franc was expected of every such one.

The clock gives the seconds, minutes, hours, changes of the moon, all the principal feast days of the calendar, the changes of the seasons, and the positions of the planets for an almost unlimited number of years. It is so constructed as to regulate itself for a long period.  In the face of the clock are three little galleries, one above another. Below the lowest one, the symbolic deity of each day steps out of a niche, -Apollo on Sunday, Diana on Monday, etc. In the first gallery, an angel strikes the quarters on a bell, while a genius at his side reverses his sand-glass every hour. Higher up, grouped around a skeleton which strikes the hours, are four figures,-childhood, youth, manhood, and old age. These successively strike the quarters on a little bell.

In the highest gallery there is a figure of the Saviour. And at noon, each day, after the other figures have performed their work, miniature figures of the twelve apostles come around in front of the Saviour, and, one by one, make a bow to him; while he bestows upon them his benediction.  By the side of the clock, perched high up, is a brazen cock. As the apostles commence their work, he flaps his wings three times, and gives a shrill crow. When they are nearly through, he crows again; and just before the last one passes, he flaps his wings three times, and crows again, making the echoes ring through the old cathedral.  He does his crowing quite naturally, and it was remarkable and amusing to see him do it.  There was a famous clock here as early as the thirteenth century. In 1571 Dasypodius made a clock similar to this one, which run till 1789.  The present one was made from 1838-42, by Schevilgue, a Strassburg clock-maker.

This city of Strassburg has a library of 500,000 volumes. Guttenburg here first began his experiments in printing, which resulted in such great benefit to the world. There is a monument of him in the city. Kleber, one of Napoleon's greatest generals, who was assassinated in Egypt, also has a monument in the city. He was a native of this place.

Leaving Strassburg, we traveled northward along the beautiful valley of the Rhine.  The steep hillsides are terraced in a wonderful way, and vineyards everywhere greet the eye.   Probably there is no river in the world  which abounds in more beautiful scenery. Hoary ruins of old castles, as well as castles better preserved, appear from time to time. The train will not let us stop, but hurries us on till we reach "Cologne-" Koln the Germans spell it and pronounce it.

This is a fine city of nearly 150,000 people.  It is the largest in Rhenish Prussia, and one of the most important in Germany. It dates from about the time of the Christian era. A Roman colony was planted here by the mother of Nero, though there was already a small city here.

In A. D. 308, Constantine the Great built a stone bridge over the Rhine at this place. After many quarrels between the archbishops and the citizens, municipal independence was gained in 1288.  We could see but little of the city between the time of the trains; so we gave a hurried visit to the cathedral, the principal point of interest. Externally, it is one of the finest cathedrals we have seen in Europe; internally it is not so remarkable.

The foundation of the present building was laid in August, 1284, but the structure was not completed till August, 1880. The sum spent upon it between 1842 and 1880 was $4,500,000. At its dedication, it was honored with the presence of the Emperor William, and nearly all the sovereign princes of the German Empire. It has a very prominent situation, and can be seen a long distance from the city.  It is built in the form of a cross, the nave being flanked with double, and the transept with single, aisles. The total length is 444 feet; the breadth, 201 feet; the height of the walls, 150 feet; the height of the roof, 201 feet. The height of the central tower above the transept is 357 feet.  The height of the larger towers to the end are 512 feet. They stand side by side, the highest of any in Europe. This great mass of stone is covered over with a great variety of turrets, statuary, and all sorts of figures, and the whole presents a most imposing appearance. Internally, there are many cathedrals which excel it. The largest bell in it is called the Koiser loche. It was cast from the metal of a, cannon captured from the French in the last war, and it weighs twenty-five tons.  A very fine iron bridge crosses the Rhine at Cologne, on which cars, teams, and foot-travelers pass.










THE valley of the Danube is a fine country, containing excellent soil, and it is of large extent.  The Danube is a great river, rolling down toward the sea. It reminds me of our mighty western rivers. Where we were, the banks were not very high, and it looked as if there would be a mighty overflow should the old river get excited, and pour out its floods.

We noticed here one thing which we never saw elsewhere. In the bottoms, which were quite low, there were many trees, standing here and there.

The tops of the most of them were cut out, leaving only the large lower limbs, eight or ten feet long.  In these limbs, small stacks of hay or fodder were piled to a considerable height. The people could in this way secure their haystacks against the elements.

We left Roumania, feeling grateful that our lot was cast in the newer West rather than in these old countries of the orient. Whether the readers...realize it or not, they have great occasion for thankfulness to God that their homes are in the United States of America.

Our return journey to Venice lay over the same route that we traveled in going, so that there was nothing new or remarkable to explain.

We left the famous city of Venice, with its water highways, in the forenoon; and in six or seven hours we reached Milan, passing westward through the famous plains of Lombardy, past beautiful scenery and important towns. For a great part of the way the country was very level, and the almost never-ending rows of mulberry trees, with their climbing grape vines, and the cultivated fields, gave evidence of material prosperity.

This is one of the richest districts in the world. It has a fertile soil, a lovely climate, and the finest of fruits. Here the armies of many ages and periods have struggled to gain possession of it.

While waiting for the train in Milan, we took time to visit the great cathedral here, which the people of that city consider the eighth wonder of the world. And it is not surprising that they do feel some degree of pride in the possession of such a magnificent building. It was begun by Visconti, in A. D. 1386. It is the largest cathedral in the world excepting two, -one, St. Peter's, in Rome; and the other at Seville, in Spain.  It is 677 feet long on the inside, and 183 wide. The nave is 155, feet in height; the dome, 220 feet. The tower is 360 feet in height above the pavement, and is ascended by 494 steps. This vast edifice is built in the form of a cross, with double aisles and a transept flanked with aisles. The interior is supported by 52 pillars, 12 feet in diameter, the summits of which are adorned with canopied niches containing statues. The marble pavement is laid in mosaic work. The ceiling is skillfully painted, so that one would think it perforated stonework.

It is built in gothic style, and the roof is adorned with 98 gothic turrets. The exterior of the building is adorned by over 2,000 statues in marble.  Every one of the turrets has a statue on top of it.  It presents a very imposing appearance. It strikes one with astonishment to think, of the labor which the erection of such a building must have cost.

This was built in what we call the Dark Ages; but it would seem that in the erection of magnificent buildings, the people were fully equal to the present age, with all its boasted knowledge and science.

The view from the cathedral tower is very fine.  One can easily see all the prominent buildings of this large city. The people walking along the pavements did not seem to be more than two feet high. It made one almost shudder to look down from that dizzy height upon them. Spread out before us, as far as the eye could reach, lay the plains of Lombardy, with their villages and endless rows of mulberry trees, vineyards, and cultivated fields.  In the distance, toward the north, rose the snow-capped Alps, height above height, presenting a beautiful picture of mountain scenery; and toward the south-west, the Apennine range could be distinctly seen. But few countries in the world are more beautiful than Northern Italy.

On the north side of the cathedral, the gallery of Victor Emmanuel forms a prominent point of interest. This gallery cost $1,500,000. It contains 2,000 gas jets. There is a large circle of these in the dome, which afford a brilliant illumination.  These are lighted by a small engine set in motion by clock work; it is all done in one and a half minutes. This often attracts a large number of spectators. The gallery contains the finest statuary of eminent Italians, and many other objects of interest which we had not the time to examine.

Our return through Switzerland was over the St. Gothard route, the same that we described in a former article.  We passed northward from Bile, up the Rhine valley to Strasburg, some eighty miles from Bile. The, country is very pleasant and well cultivated, and raises such crops as are usually seen in temperate climates. Villages are often passed; fruit trees and vineyards abound.  Both men and women were seen diligently working in the fields, hoeing, spading, and plowing. The farms looked very neat and tidy. Strasburg is the capital of Alsace and German Lorraine. It contains nearly 110,000 inhabitants, and is situated about two miles from the River Rhine. Alsace and Lorraine have formerly belonged to the Germans; but in the great wars of the French king, Louis XIV., they were conquered by the French, and remained under their control until the late war, when the Prussians gained possession of them.

Strasburg was founded by the Romans, near the commencement of the Christian era. It is a prominent point between Germany, France, and Switzerland, and it has for many centuries been a very important city.  When it was a German city, before it was taken by the French, it was one of the most prosperous free cities of the empire, enjoying the proud distinction of having its banner borne second to the imperial eagle.  The city was seized by Louis XIV., Sept. 30, 1687, in time of peace. He had previously conquered the rest of Alsace in the thirty years' war. The French held it till 1871, when the Germans once more gained possession of it.

It is a place of great strategetical importance.  Several miles away from the city, and surrounding it in every direction, large earth works have been thrown up. They are so arranged as to afford shelter for a large number of troops.  An invading army would have to pass between these; and while the fire from many cannons could be concentrated upon them, and the city's defenders could have protection, their soldiers were exposed in the open field. Between these outer works and the city there are other works which add greatly to the power of defense.

The city itself is not particularly inviting, the streets being narrow, and the houses generally uninviting. Most of them were built long ago, and are therefore not as attractive as newer cities.

The principal object of interest in the city is the cathedral. Besides this, there are some statues, fountains, etc., which are of interest.  There is a university here, of many years' standing.  It has been quite famous, and still enjoys quite a high reputation. The principal business of the city is brewing, tanning, and engine building.

The present cathedral structure dates from the12th to the 15th centuries, different portions being built at different times. Indeed, there are some objects of interest in it that go back before the time of Charlemagne, in the 8th century.  It is quite a famous edifice, though the exterior is not as imposing as some others. The spire is very fine, being built of open stone work to the top, and it is octagonal in form.  The visitor ascends 330 steps to the platform on which the tower of open stone work rests.  It is 216 feet from the street to the top of the platform, and the tower is, 249 feet more, making in all 465 feet.  There are only three others higher in Europe.  Many visitors content themselves with going to the top of the platform, from which an excellent view can be obtained.  We went up the tower as far as we were allowed to go without a special permit from the mayor of the city.

'During the great bombardment by the Prussians in 1870, the tower suffered from the cannon balls and shells.  Here and there pieces of the stonework were knocked out. These have mostly been replaced since the war.  From this dizzy height, a splendid view could be obtained of the Rhine valley, with its fertile fields, smiling landscapes, vineyards, and villages. The Black Forest was plainly visible; and in the dim distance, the dark, fir-covered mountains raised their lofty heads in silent grandeur.  It was interesting to gaze down upon the tops of the houses, and the pedestrians in the streets. They looked like pigmies, almost, so far were they below us.